He is revered as the last messenger of divine guidance, the embodiment of the prophetic tradition, and a seminal figure in the history of Arabia who, through his leadership and vision, unified the diverse communities of the region into a cohesive religious entity under the banner of Islam.

  • Fullname: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim;
  • Arabic: محمد‎
  • Born: Monday, April 22, 571 A.D/ 9 Rabi’ Al-Awwal, Mecca
  • Died: June 9, 632 A.D/ 13 Rabi’ Al-Awwal, Medina
  • Buried: Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
  • Parents: Abd-Allah ibn Abd-al-Muttalib, Aminah bint Wahb
  • Children: Fatima Zahra, Zainab bint Muhammad, Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, Umm Kulthum binte Muhammad, Qasim ibn Muhammad, Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad

His Names

Our Prophet was given many names by Allah and by later scholars, with over 250 names being derived by one of the renowned Seerah scholars. However, we will focus on the primary names given to him by Allah, as they hold the deepest meaning. According to Jubayr ibn Mut’im, Prophet Muhammad PBUH stated that he had several names including Muhammad, Ahmad, al-Mahi (the one who erases disbelief), al-Hashir (the one after whom people will be resurrected), al-Aqib (the last prophet). In another narration, he is referred to as Nabi al-Rahma (Prophet of Mercy), Nabi al-Tawba (Prophet of Repentance), al-Muqaffa (the one brought at the end), and Nabi al-Malahim (Prophet of Battles).

The Quran explicitly mentions two of his names, Muhammad and Ahmad. The name Muhammad is mentioned four times in the Quran, and Ahmad is mentioned once by the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) in the Quran. Both names come from the root word “hamd,” which means “praise.” This praise refers to a form of praise that is given without expectation of reward or return, simply because of the inherent qualities of the one being praised. The Prophet PBUH is praised in the heavens and the earth, by Muslims and non-Muslims alike, in the past and present, in this world and the next. There is no human before, now, or after who is praised more than the Prophet PBUH.

His Specialities

  1. Prophet Muhammad PBUH is the final prophet of Allah in Islam, as stated in the Quran.
  2. The prophethood of Prophet Muhammad PBUH was decreed by Allah even before the creation of Adam AS.
  3. Prophet Muhammad PBUH was sent as a prophet to all of humanity and even to the jinn. He was the only prophet to have been sent to all of humanity.
  4. Prophet Muhammad PBUH was unique in that his enemies feared him even before he reached them, due to Allah helping him with a type of fear called “ru’b.”
  5. He was given the largest ummah (community of followers) among all prophets and was told that his ummah will be two-thirds of the people in Paradise.
  6. The Quran is considered to be the most powerful miracle given to Prophet Muhammad PBUH and is considered a living miracle.
  7. Prophet Muhammad PBUH had the ability to see things that were unseen to others and was referred to as “Al-Muzzammil” (The Wrapped One) in the Quran.
  8. Prophet Muhammad PBUH was given the ability to intercede for people on the Day of Judgment, a privilege granted to no other prophet.
  9. He was a mercy to all of creation and was referred to as “Rasul al-Rahmah” (The Messenger of Mercy) in the Quran.
  10. Prophet Muhammad PBUH had the ability to perform miracles, including healing and feeding a large number of people with limited resources.
  11. He was protected from sin and error by Allah, as stated in the Quran.
  12. He was truthful in all aspects of his life and was referred to as “Al-Amin” (The Trustworthy One) in the Quran.
  13. Prophet Muhammad PBUH had the ability to change the conditions of people and societies through his teachings and was referred to as “Sahib al-Tawfiq” (The Master of Success) in the Quran.

His Physical Appearance

Prophet Muhammad PBUH was described as a man of medium stature with broad shoulders and thick hair that reached his earlobes. He was not excessively tall or short, and his skin tone was lightish brown. His face was not narrow, his hair was not curly or straight, and his hands were incredibly soft. He had a bushy beard and was described as very handsome. The Prophet’s sweat was described as being fragrant, and some of his companions used it as perfume and medicine. Despite the descriptions of his physical appearance, the sahaba were often in awe of him and couldn’t describe him completely.
Between his two shoulders was the Seal of the Prophethood — and he was the seal of the prophets.” (Note: The Prophet PBUH had a physical Seal on his body that Allah gave him. And this was to be a sign by which he would be recognized by the People of the Book [Jews and Christians] as a true prophet. It was a small growth of hair of a different colour than the usual colour of his body hair in between his shoulder blades [more on this later]. Most famously, Salman al-Farisi accepted Islam because of this Seal.

His Qualities


The Prophet Muhammad PBUH lived a simple lifestyle, even after he became the leader of a large portion of Arabia. He had a small compartment in the mosque with only a jug of water and a bed made of date palm branches, which left a red mark on his side. His bed was often a leather skin stuffed with date palm leaves and sometimes he would not taste meat for 6 weeks. Aisha bint Abi Bakr described their lifestyle as living on dates and dirty water. The Sahaba also experienced difficult times in the early days of Madinah and sometimes suffered from hunger. Despite this, they remained content and focused on the hereafter, knowing that the Prophet PBUH never had a luxurious life, even when he had the opportunity for one. When good food was brought to them, they sometimes cried, as they remembered the Prophet’s simplicity and worried that they were receiving all their reward in this life.


One of the many beautiful qualities of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was his compassion. He had a special place in his heart for children and would often spend time playing with them and making them laugh. He was also known for his kindness towards animals and would never allow them to be mistreated. For example, it is narrated that once while on a journey, the Prophet stopped to give water to a thirsty dog, and because of this act of kindness, Allah forgave all of his sins. This shows the compassion that the Prophet had not only towards humans but also towards all of Allah’s creations.


The Prophet was known for his humility, even when he was a leader and commander. For example, during the Battle of Badr, the Prophet distributed the camels amongst the people and assigned two of his companions to share a camel with him. When they offered the camel to him, he smiled and declined, saying that they were not stronger than him and that he was in no lesser need of reward. He wanted to make sure that they did not feel like he was doing them a favour by declining their generous offer. This shows the Prophet’s humility and his unwillingness to let his position as a leader come between him and his companions.


The Prophet was known for his excellent manners and his kindness. Anas ibn Malik, one of the Prophet’s companions, reported that he served the Prophet for ten years and that the Prophet never rebuked him or expressed irritation. Additionally, even when people showed him the utmost disrespect, he maintained his dignity and composure. For example, when a group of Jews came to mock him, the Prophet responded with kindness and refused to stoop to their level. This shows the Prophet’s excellent manners and his commitment to being kind and compassionate, even in the face of insult and disrespect.


The Prophet was also known for his bravery. In the Battle of Badr, his companions would seek refuge around him when the fighting became severe. This shows the Prophet’s bravery and the trust that his companions had in him as a leader. He was also known for his bravery in everyday life and was not afraid to stand up for what was right, even if it meant facing danger.


The Prophet was a wise and prudent leader, and his words and actions continue to inspire and guide Muslims today. He was known for his ability to solve problems and make decisions in a wise and just manner. For example, during a drought in Madinah, he forbade the people from hoarding food and instead encouraged them to share what they had with their neighbors. This shows the Prophet’s wisdom and his concern for the well-being of the community. The Prophet’s wisdom and his dedication to justice continue to be a source of inspiration for Muslims today.

Love for His Nation

The Prophet Muhammad PBUH had an immense amount of love for his ummah, as stated in Quran 9:128, “There has come to you a Messenger from amongst you, he finds it difficult to bear your hardships, he is ever eager for you, to the believers he is full of compassion and mercy.”

One incident that highlights the love of the Prophet PBUH for his ummah is narrated in Sahih Muslim. The Prophet PBUH was reciting the Quran and came across verses of Ibrahim AS and Isa AS, both making du’a for their ummah. The Prophet PBUH then raised his hands and cried, “O Allah, my ummah! O Allah, my ummah!” Allah asked Jibril to ask the Prophet why he was crying, to which the Prophet responded that he was worried about the fate of his ummah. Jibril went back to Allah and was told that He will please the Prophet regarding his ummah.

Every prophet was given one wish that Allah would never reject. The prophets used it for their people who disobeyed, but the Prophet PBUH had the greatest du’a and saved it for his ummah. He stated that every prophet had used their wish, except for him. He saved his wish for the Day of Judgment, where he will make the du’a, “O Allah, forgive my entire ummah.” And Allah will accept this du’a, resulting in every Muslim who believes and acts upon the teachings of the Prophet to be forgiven and enter Jannah.

The love of the Prophet PBUH for his ummah is evident in his actions and words. He used his one wish for the betterment of his ummah, and this highlights the immense love and compassion he had for them. The Prophet PBUH remains an inspiration for all Muslims, and his love for his ummah continues to serve as a reminder of the love and compassion that should be shown towards one’s fellow beings.

His Birthdate & Deathdate

There are disagreements among historians and writers regarding the exact date of birth of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). However, a wide majority of historians have agreed that he was born in the month of Rabi ul Awwal, and it was a Monday. Different scholars have suggested different dates, ranging from the 2nd to the 22nd Rabi ul Awwal, and even the 10th Muharram. The only sure information we have is the month and the day. Mahmud Pasha Falki’s astronomical calculations suggested that the Monday falls on the 9th Rabi ul Awwal in the year when Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was born. However, the pagan Arabs would modify the calendar according to their wishes, so it is difficult to determine the exact date of birth even through astronomical calculations.
The significance of the 12th of Rabiulawwal, as the date of the birth of Prophet Muhammad, can be attributed to several reasons. Firstly, it is mentioned in two of the most famous books on the life of the Prophet – Seerah Ibn-Hisham and Ibn-Ishaaq. Secondly, the decision to celebrate the birthday of the Prophet on this day may have influenced its popularity. While earlier historians like Ibn-S’ad did not include 12 Rabi ul Awwal in the list of candidates for the Prophet’s birthday, Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr believed the most common opinion was the 8th of Rabīʿ al-Awwal. However, three centuries later, after the mawlid had been introduced as a public festival, Ibn Kathīr stated that the 12th of Rabīʿ al-Awwal was the most widely accepted date.

The exact date of Prophet Muhammad’s death is also uncertain, but it is known that he died on a Monday. Different sources suggest different dates, but the most famous date is the 12th of Rabiulawwal. From the books of Hadith, it is known that the year of Prophet Muhammad’s death was the year in which the 9th Dhil Hijjah was a Friday. There are four possibilities for the start of Rabi ul Awwal, depending on the length of the preceding months. Based on this, the views of Ibn-Hajr (2nd), Ibn-Jareer (1st), and Suleman Mansurpuri (13th) are considered to be the only possibilities, and the commonly accepted dates of the 12th Rabi ul Awwal and 28th Safar have been proven to be incorrect.

His Ancestry

There are two main categories of Arabs in pre-Islamic Arabia: the Extinct Arabs, who lived in Arabia thousands of years before Islam and have nothing to do with later Arabs, and the Remaining Arabs, who are divided into two subcategories. The first subcategory is Qahtan, considered the father of the Arabs, and whose son Ya’rab is where the term Arab comes from. Qahtan lived way before the second subcategory, Adnan, who is the ancestor of the Prophet PBUH. Adnan is one of the descendants of Ismail AS. Arabs are divided into these categories based on their genealogy and ethnicity, which is a topic of interest for scholars.

The lineage of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is as follows:

Muhammad ibn Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka’b ibn Lu’ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn al-Nadr ibn Kinanah ibn Khuzaymah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Ma’add ibn Adnan.

The Banu Hashim clan, to which the Prophet Muhammad belonged, was a sub-clan of the larger Quraysh tribe, which was prominent in pre-Islamic Arabia.

Importance of Seerah & its sources

  • Seerah is the study of the life of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
  • Studying the Seerah is an obligation that Allah has put upon us, as over 50 verses in the Quran command us to take the Prophet PBUH as an example.
  • The Seerah is the number one way to increase our love for the Prophet PBUH and helps us understand the Quran in context.
  • It also raises our hopes, lifts our spirits, and blesses us with optimism, especially during times of Islamophobia.
  • Studying the Seerah helps us develop a sense of identity and belonging to the Muslim ummah, and strengthens our faith.
  • The Seerah is a rich source of wisdom and guidance in various aspects of life, such as religion, manners and morals, leadership, and family.
  • It allows us to learn from the experiences and mistakes of the Prophet PBUH and his companions, and apply those lessons to our own lives.
  • The study of the Seerah is also the study of the proofs of the Prophet PBUH’s prophethood, as it contains numerous miracles and signs.
  • Neglecting the study of the Seerah is a sign of not loving the Prophet PBUH enough, and it is embarrassing that most of our children are completely ignorant of it.

The primary sources used for studying the Seerah or the life of Prophet Muhammad are the Quran, the Hadith, and the books that are specifically written for Seerah. The Quran is the number one source, and it references almost every major event that happened during the life of the Prophet. The eloquence of the Quran is unparalleled, and it explains the unseen or ghayb. However, it does not mention references and is not chronological, so the Seerah and the Quran go hand in hand. The Hadith, which are collections of the sayings and actions of the Prophet, provide snapshots of the Seerah. The most famous books of Hadith are the Kutub al-Sittah. The books specifically written for Seerah were first compiled by the sons of the Sahaba, including Urwah the son of Zubayr ibn al-Awam, and Aban the son of Uthman ibn Affan. The earliest treatise of Seerah was written by Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, and the most significant scholar of Seerah was Ibn Ishaq, who compiled a book called Seeratu Rasulillah. He grew up around the Sahaba and their descendants and compiled everything he heard from them chronologically. He travelled to other cities to verify stories and compiled a very large book with isnad. Although the earlier treatises of Seerah are no longer in existence, the later books absorbed the earlier ones, and we have books written in the very next generation after the Prophet’s life.
Here are some prominent sources for Seerah:

  1. السيرة النبوية – ابن هشام
  2. السيرة النبوية – ابن إسحاق
  3. الرحيق المختوم – صفي الرحمن المباركفوري
  4. الشمائل المحمدية – الإمام الترمذي
  5. دلائل النوة – البيهقي
  6. شمائل الرسول – الحافظ ابن كثير


  1. The Sealed Nectar – Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri
  2. The Life of the Prophet Muhammad: English Translation of Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah – Alfred Guillaume
  3. Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources – Martin Lings
  4. The Noble Life of the Prophet – Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabee
  5. Shamail-e-Tirmidhi – Imam Al-Tirmidhi
  6. The Perfect Model for Humanity: Muhammad the Messenger of Allah – Mustafa Zarqa
  7. The Life of Prophet Muhammad: Highlights and Lessons – Dr. Mustafa As-Sibaaie
  8. The Seerah of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) – Yasir Qadhi (Youtube series)

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